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Comprehensive inventory of true flies (Diptera) at a tropical site


Brian V. Brown
Art Borkent
Peter H. Adler
Dalton de Souza Amorim
Kevin Barber
Daniel Bickel
Stephanie Boucher
Scott E. Brooks
John Burger
Zelia L. Burington
Renato S. Capellari
Daniel N. R. Costa
Jeffrey M. Cumming
Greg Curler
Carl W. Dick
John H. Epler
Eric Fisher
Stephen D. Gaimari
Jon Gelhaus
David A. Grimaldi
John Hash
Martin Hauser
Heikki Hippa
Sergio Ibanez-Bernal
Mathias Jaschhof
Elena P. Kameneva
Peter H. Kerr
Valery Korneyev
Cheslavo A. Korytkowski
Giar-Ann Kung
Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte
Owen Lonsdale
Stephen A. Marshall
Wayne Mathis
Verner Michelsen
Stefan Naglis
Allen L. Norrbom
Steven Paiero
Thomas Pape
Alessandre Pereira-Colavite
Marc Pollet
Sabrina Rochefort
Alessandra Rung
Jade Savage
Vera C. Silva
Bradley J. Sinclair
Jeffrey H. Skevington
John O. Stireman
John Swann
F. Christian Thompson
Pekka Vilkamaa
Terry Wheeler
Terry Whitworth
Maria Wong
D. Monty Wood
Norman Woodley
Tiffany Yau
Thomas J. Zavortink
Manuel A. Zumbado



Publication type:

Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Primary Station(s):

Rocky Mountain Research Station


Communications Biology. 1: 21.


Estimations of tropical insect diversity generally suffer from lack of known groups or faunas against which extrapolations can be made, and have seriously underestimated the diversity of some taxa. Here we report the intensive inventory of a four-hectare tropical cloud forest in Costa Rica for one year, which yielded 4332 species of Diptera, providing the first verifiable basis for diversity of a major group of insects at a single site in the tropics. In total 73 families were present, all of which were studied to the species level, providing potentially complete coverage of all families of the order likely to be present at the site. Even so, extrapolations based on our data indicate that with further sampling, the actual total for the site could be closer to 8000 species. Efforts to completely sample a site, although resource-intensive and time-consuming, are needed to better ground estimations of world biodiversity based on limited sampling.


Brown, Brian V.; Borkent, Art; Adler, Peter H.; Amorim, Dalton de Souza; Barber, Kevin; Bickel, Daniel; Boucher, Stephanie; Brooks, Scott E.; Burger, John; Burington, Zelia L.; Capellari, Renato S.; Costa, Daniel N. R.; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Curler, Greg; Dick, Carl W.; Epler, John H.; Fisher, Eric; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Gelhaus, Jon; Grimaldi, David A.; Hash, John; Hauser, Martin; Hippa, Heikki; Ibanez-Bernal, Sergio; Jaschhof, Mathias; Kameneva, Elena P.; Kerr, Peter H.; Korneyev, Valery; Korytkowski, Cheslavo A.; Kung, Giar-Ann; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Lonsdale, Owen; Marshall, Stephen A.; Mathis, Wayne; Michelsen, Verner; Naglis, Stefan; Norrbom, Allen L.; Paiero, Steven; Pape, Thomas; Pereira-Colavite, Alessandre; Pollet, Marc; Rochefort, Sabrina; Rung, Alessandra; Runyon, Justin B.; Savage, Jade; Silva, Vera C.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.; Stireman, John O., III; Swann, John; Thompson, F. Christian; Vilkamaa, Pekka; Wheeler, Terry; Whitworth, Terry; Wong, Maria; Wood, D. Monty; Woodley, Norman; Yau, Tiffany; Zavortink, Thomas J.; Zumbado, Manuel A. 2018. Comprehensive inventory of true flies (Diptera) at a tropical site. Communications Biology. 1: 21.


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