Greenness and school-wide test scores are not always positively associated – A replication of "linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the 'greenness' of school surroundings using remote sensing"Author(s): Matthew H.E.M. Browning; Ming Kuo; Sonya Sachdeva; Kangjae Lee; Lynne Westphal
Source: Landscape and Urban Planning
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Northern Research Station
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DescriptionRecent studies find vegetation around schools correlates positively with student test scores. To test this relationship in schools with less green cover and more disadvantaged students, we replicated a leading study, using six years of NDVI-derived greenness data to predict school-level math and reading achievement in 404 Chicago public schools. A direct replication yielded highly mixed results with some significant positive relationships between greenness and academic achievement, some negative, and some null – but accompanying VIF scores in the thousands indicated untenable levels of multicollinearity. An adjusted replication corrected for multicollinearity and yielded stable results; surprisingly, all models then showed near-zero but statistically significant negative relationships between greenness and performance. In low-green, high-disadvantage schools, negative greenness-academic performance links may reflect the predominance of grass in measures of overall greenness and/or insufficient statistical controls for the moderating effect of disadvantage.
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CitationBrowning, Matthew H.E.M.; Kuo, Ming; Sachdeva, Sonya; Lee, Kangjae; Westphal, Lynne. 2018. Greenness and school-wide test scores are not always positively associated – A replication of "linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the 'greenness' of school surroundings using remote sensing". Landscape and Urban Planning. 178: 69-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.05.007.
KeywordsAcademic performance, Remote sensing, Vegetation, Greenness, Replication
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