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    International trade and movement of people are largely responsible for increasing numbers of non-native insect introductions to new environments. For forest insects, trade in live plants and transport of wood packaging material (WPM) are considered the most important pathways facilitating long-distance invasions. These two pathways as well as trade in firewood, logs, and processed wood are commonly associated with insect infestations, while "hitchhiking" insects can be moved on cargo, in the conveyances used for transport (e.g., containers, ships), or associated with international movement of passengers and mail. Once established in a new country, insects can spread domestically through all of the above pathways. Considerable national and international efforts have been made in recent years to reduce the risk of international movement of plant pests. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) No. 15 (WPM), 36 (plants for planting), and 39 (wood) are examples of phytosanitary standards that have been adopted by the International Plant Protection Convention to reduce risks of invasions of forest pests. The implementation of ISPMs by exporting countries is expected to reduce the arrival rate and establishments of new forest pests. However, many challenges remain to reduce pest transportation through international trade, given the ever-increasing volume of traded goods, variations in quarantine procedures between countries, and rapid changes in distribution networks. It is therefore likely that many more human-assisted invasions of forest insects will take place. New geographic expansions by natural modes are also made possible due to changes in host distribution and/or climate.

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    Meurisse, Nicolas; Rassati, Davide; Hurley, Brett P.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Haack, Robert A. 2019. Common pathways by which non-native forest insects move internationally and domestically. Journal of Pest Science. 92(1): 13-27.


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    Biological invasions, Global change, Globalization, Invasion pathways, ISPM, Phytosanitary policy

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