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    Author(s): Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Vicente J. Monleon
    Date: 2018
    Source: In: Potter, Kevin M.; Conkling, Barbara L., eds. 2018. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2017. General Technical Report SRS-233. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
    Publication Series: Book Chapter
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (957.0 KB)

    Description

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is a keystone species that provides a variety of ecosystem services, such as soil stabilization and protracted snowmelts. Found in many upper subalpine forests in Western North America (Arno and Hoff 1989), whitebark pine is an important high-elevation food source for grizzly bears (Bjoernlie and others 2014) and numerous other wildlife species (Tomback and others 2001, 2014). A rapid, widespread decline in whitebark pine throughout its range has been observed and reported for about 30 years (e.g., Arno 1986, Arno and Hoff 1989, Shanahan and others 2016, Tomback and others 2001). The decline in whitebark pine populations is attributed to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), which damages and kills five-needle white pines (Geils and others 2010); mountain pine beetle outbreaks (Tomback and Achuff 2010); altered fire regimes (Keane 2001, Keane and others 1994, Murray and others 2000); and drought (Shanahan and others 2016).

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    Citation

    Eskelson, Bianca N.I.; Monleon, Vicente J. 2018. Chapter 8 - Status and trends of whitebark pine distribution and health in California, Oregon, and Washington (Project WC-EM-B-12-02). In: Potter, Kevin M.; Conkling, Barbara L., eds. 2018. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2017. General Technical Report SRS-233. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Pages 135-142

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