Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Randy Molina; Thomas O'Dell; Daniel Luoma; Michael Amaranthus; Michael Castellano; Kenelm Russell
    Date: 1993
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-309. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 42 p
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.62 MB)


    The commercial harvest of edible forest fungi has mushroomed into a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The development of this special forest product industry has raised considerable controversy about how this resource should be managed, especially on public lands. Concerns center around destruction of forest habitat by repeated entry and harvest, gradual loss of the mushroom resource by potential overharvest, conflict between recreational users and commercial harvesters, and regulation and monitoring of future harvests. A key to wisely managing the edible mushroom resource is common understanding among resource managers, the mushroom industry, and the concerned public about the biology of these unique forest organisms, their ecological importance in forest eco-systems, and effects of forest disturbance on their survival. The primary objectives of this overview paper are to provide information on the biology of forest fungi, describe the major edible fungi harvested in the Pacific Northwest, integrate a perspective on the social aspects of the mushroom harvest issue, summarize the development of the commercial mushroom industry, and suggest research and monitoring protocols for developing management guidelines.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Molina, Randy; O''Dell, Thomas; Luoma, Daniel; Amaranthus, Michael; Castellano, Michael; Russell, Kenelm. 1993. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific Northwest: a preface to managing commercial harvest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-309. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 42 p


    Google Scholar


    Fungi, mushrooms, mycorrhizae, monitoring, forest ecology, forest management, special forest products, recreation

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page