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    Agroforestry can reduce risks and promote sustainable agricultural production under shifting climate and weather extremes by (1) reducing threats and enhancing agricultural landscape resiliency, (2) facilitating species movement to more favorable conditions, (3) sequestering carbon, and (4) reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although agroforestry practices can provide these positive adaptation and mitigation services, they in turn can be vulnerable to the same forces. The design and management of agroforestry systems must therefore take into account how these systems can incorporate resiliency into agriculture in ways that the systems are more resilient to these changing conditions. As a key step in this process, the authors conducted a search of the scientific literature on agroforestry’s role in adaptation and mitigation under climatic variability and change, as well as on the effects of these stressors on agroforestry. The temporal scope of the literature search focused on the period of 1992 to 2017, and the geographical scope concentrated on temperate agricultural regions. This publication is available at as a printable and searchable document. The references and annotations are also available from an online ZoteroTM database that will be periodically updated as new literature becomes available. The public database is accessible at

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Bentrup, Gary; Cernusca, Ina; Gold, Michael. 2018.  Supporting U.S. agricultural landscapes under changing conditions with agroforestry: An annotated bibliography.  Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture 137.  Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 63 p.


    climate variability, climate change, mitigation, adaptation, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, resiliency

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