Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Kathryn M. Weglarz; Nathan P. Havill; Gaelen R. Burke; Carol D. von Dohlen
    Date: 2018
    Source: Genome Biology and Evolution
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Nutritional bacterial symbionts enhance the diets of sap-feeding insects with amino acids and vitamins missing from their diets. In many lineages, an ancestral senior symbiont is joined by a younger junior symbiont. To date, an emergent pattern is that senior symbionts supply a majority of amino acids, and junior symbionts supply a minority. Similar to other hemipterans, adelgids harbor obligate symbionts, but have higher diversity of bacterial associates, suggesting a history of symbiont turnover. The metabolic roles of dual symbionts in adelgids and their contributions to the consortium are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate the symbionts of Adelges tsugae, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), an invasive species introduced from Japan to the eastern United States, where it kills hemlock trees. The response of hemlocks to HWA feeding has aspects of a defensive reaction against pathogens, and some have speculated that symbionts may be involved. We sequenced the genomes of "Ca. Annandia adelgestsuga" and "Ca. Pseudomonas adelgestsugas" symbionts to detail their metabolic capabilities, infer ages of relationship, and search for effectors of plant defenses. We also tested the relationship of "Ca. Annandia" to symbionts of other insects. We find that both symbionts provide nutrients, but in more balanced proportions than dual symbionts of other hemipterans. The lesser contributions of the senior "Ca. Annandia" support our hypothesis for symbiont replacements in adelgids. Phylogenomic results were ambiguous regarding the position of "Ca. Annandia". We found no obvious effectors of plant defenses related to insect virulence, but hypothetical proteins in symbionts are unknown players.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Weglarz, Kathryn M.; Havill, Nathan P.; Burke, Gaelen R.; von Dohlen, Carol D. 2018. Partnering With a Pest: Genomes of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Symbionts Reveal Atypical Nutritional Provisioning Patterns in Dual-Obligate Bacteria. Genome Biology and Evolution. 10(6): 1607-1621.


    Google Scholar


    Adelges tsugae, Adelgidae, Ca. Annandia adelgestuga, Ca. Pseudomonas adelgestsugas, hypersensitive response, nutritional endosymbiont

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page