Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Masood Akhtar; Gary M. Scott; Ross E. Swaney; Mike J. Lentz; Eric G. Horn; Marguerite S. Sykes; Gary C. Myers
    Date: 1999
    Source: [Proceedings of the 1999 TAPPI international mechanical pulping conference: 1999 May 24-26, Houston]. Atlanta, GA : TAPPI Press, 1999.:p. 1-10 : ill.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (150 KB)


    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, fifty tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for two weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, we were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Akhtar, Masood.; Scott, Gary M.; Swaney, Ross E.; Lentz, Mike J.; Horn, Eric G.; Sykes, Marguerite S.; Myers, Gary C. 1999. Biomechanical pulping : a mill-scale evaluation. [Proceedings of the 1999 TAPPI international mechanical pulping conference: 1999 May 24-26, Houston]. Atlanta, GA : TAPPI Press, 1999.:p. 1-10 : ill.


    Mechanical pulping, Biopulping, Paper, Fungi, Mills, Strength, Energy consumption, Pretreatment, Papermaking.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page