Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Joanne Rebbeck; Joan Jolliff
    Date: 2018
    Source: Forest Ecology and Management
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (435.0 KB)


    The non-native invasive tree, Ailanthus altissima is an increasing threat to the diversity and health of temperate forests. Female trees are prolific producers of wind-dispersed seeds. It is not known if Ailanthus seeds remain viable in natural growing conditions beyond two years. We collected Ailanthus seeds from eleven sources in fall 2010 and incubated outdoors in either mixed oak leaf litter or mineral soil (10 cm depth) for five years to assess seed viability. Each May sets of seeds were retrieved, counted and sown in a greenhouse to measure germination. Initially germination rates averaged 87%, however in year 5 (2016), germination rates of seeds incubated outdoors in oak leaf litter, fell to 1.9%, while those incubated in mineral soil averaged 75%. Germination rates of soil-incubated seeds ranged from 48 to 95% among the eleven seed sources after five years. These findings demonstrate that the common practice to eliminate Ailanthus seed sources two years prior to a timber harvest is insufficient to deplete its seed bank. We propose that managers remove seed sources at minimum of six years in advance of a scheduled timber harvest. Ideally, it would be most advantageous to incorporate removal of females Ailanthus as a routine management practice.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Rebbeck, Joanne; Jolliff, Joan. 2018. How long do seeds of the invasive tree, Ailanthus altissima remain viable? Forest Ecology and Management. 429: 175-179.


    Google Scholar


    Silviculture, Non-native invasive tree, Seed bank, Management practices, Seedling germination

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page