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    Author(s): Laura M. Blackburn; Ann E. Hajek
    Date: 2018
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-179. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 30 p.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (3.0 MB)


    Since the early 1900s, a number of parasitoids have been released for classical biological control of the introduced destructive forest insect, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth), in North America. During this time, two pathogens were accidentally introduced. These pathogens and several of the parasitoid species are now commonly found in North American gypsy moth populations. The aim in creating this guide was to provide laboratory techniques for distinguishing between two common pathogens, the fungus Entomophaga maimaiga and the gypsy moth multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, and provide illustrations and images for adults, puparia, and cocoons of established gypsy moth parasitoids commonly found in the larval or pupal stages of gypsy moth in North America. Gypsy moth collection and rearing techniques are also reviewed, and a technical glossary and summary table highlighting the affected life stage by gypsy moth parasitoids in North America are included in this guide.

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    Blackburn, Laura M.; Hajek, Ann E. 2018. Gypsy moth larval necropsy guide. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-179. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 30 p.


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    Lymantria dispar, pathogens, parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, life table studies, cause of death, Entomophaga, Tachinidae, Ichneumonidae

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