Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub

    Description

    The invention of the Gutenberg printing press in 1440 started a steady increase in demand for paper. Until the mid-1800s, most paper pulp was made by collecting, cleaning, and beating discarded linen and cotton rags. Collection of rags was such a large and organized industry that companies were regulated by the government and workers had unions. Henry Mayhew described a grand banquet of the fraternal order of chiffonniers (rag-pickers).1 As literacy and printing technology improved, demand for paper outstripped supply, and the search for alternative sources of fiber began in earnest. For example, Jacob Christian Sha¨ffer, a noted clergyman and amateur botanist, in 1765 began releasing a six-volume treatise on new papermaking fibers.2 He explored the use of a wide range of natural materials to make paper and he bound samples of the paper in his books to demonstrate their quality. Ultimately Sha¨ffer started his own paper company.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Houtman, Carl. 2018. Lessons learned from 150 years of pulping wood. In: Beckham, Gregg T., ed. Energy and Environment Series No. 19: Lignin valorization: emerging approaches. Royal Society of Chemistry: 62-74. Chapter 3.

    Keywords

    Wood pulping, lignin isolation, lignin chemistry

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/56522