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    Author(s): P. Bayman; D. J. Lodge; P. Angulo-Sandoval; Z. Baez-Ortiz
    Date: 1998
    Source: Mycological research. Vol. 102, no. 8 (1998).:p. 944-948.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (125 KB)


    Xylaria species are common endophytes in tropical plants. It is not known, however, whether transmission of Xylaria occurs horizontally or vertically, whether individual Xylaria strains have wide host ranges or are host-specific, or how they are dispersed. We compared frequency of Xylaria endophytes in leaves and seeds of two tree species in Puerto Rico, Casuarina equisetifolia (Australian pine) and Manilkara bidentata (ausubo). These trees were chosen because they differ markedly in morphology, habitat, distribution, and origin. In C. equisetifolia Xylaria was significantly more frequent in leaves than in seeds. Xylaria was isolated from seeds of trees in inland parks, but never from seeds of trees growing on beaches. This suggests that vertical transmission of Xylaria may be possible but is not necessary for infection. In M. bidentata, Xylaria was isolated from 97% of leaves but was never isolated from seeds, suggesting that transmission is entirely horizontal. Seedlings raised in a greenhouse far from other M. bidentata trees had a level of Xylaria infection as high as seedlings in the forest, suggesting that inocula can come from other sources and endophytic strains are not host-specific.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Bayman, P.; Lodge, D. J.; Angulo-Sandoval, P.; Baez-Ortiz, Z. 1998. Distribution and dispersal of Xylaria endophytes in two tree species in Puerto Rico. Mycological research. Vol. 102, no. 8 (1998).:p. 944-948.


    Endophytes, Distribution, Dispersal, Transmission, Trees, Manilkara bidentata, Casuarina equisetifolia, Puerto Rico, Tropical plants, Xylaria

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