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    Author(s): Thomas D. Whitney; Michelle M. Cram; Brittany F. Barnes; Jiangming Yao; Rima D. Lucardi; Kamal J.K. Gandhi
    Date: 2018
    Source: Forest Ecology and Management
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Bottom-up branch dieback and sapling mortality of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) has been observed range- wide during  the last two decades.  Observational studies thus far implicate these symptoms to an insect, the eastern white pine bast scale  (Matsucoccus macrocicatrices Richards), and a canker-forming, fungal pathogen, Caliciopsis pinea Peck. The scale insect was historically considered an innocuous herbivore of eastern white pine restricted only to New England and Canada, but is now found in high densities on symptomatic trees, in close association with Caliciopsis canker, and in almost every region where the host grows. We sampled branches and boles  of  eastern  white  pines  in  the  southern  Appalachians to better understand the distribution  of  the  insect- pathogen complex on individual trees and among size classes. Results indicate distinct patterns, as branches of poletimber, boles of saplings, and branches lowest in the canopy harbored the greatest numbers of bast scales and  had  the  highest proportional  Caliciopsis  canker  area.  The  incidence of scales and cankers was generally highest on older tissue with high percent lichen cover, but with thinner outer bark. Tree-level distribution of the bast scale and Caliciopsis canker was non-random and in fact mirrored the observed dieback patterns reported for eastern white pine, indicating that these two organisms may be important contributors to tree dieback and mortality in the southeastern USA.

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    Whitney, Thomas D.; Cram, Michelle M.; Barnes, Brittany F.; Yao, Jiangming; Lucardi, Rima D.; Gandhi, Kamal J.K. 2018. Tree-level distribution of a novel insect-pathogen complex and its potential contribution to eastern white pine dieback. Forest Ecology and Management. 423: 49-58.


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    Caliciopsis pinea, Matsucoccus macrocicatrices, Pinus strobus, Tree mortality, White pine dieback

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