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    Diptera rivals Coleoptera as perhaps the most abundant and diverse order of saproxylic insects, with saproxylic habits known from at least 75 (48%) of the 157 fly families recognized globally.  Some fly families are mostly if not entirely saproxylic  including Aulacigastridae,  Axymyiidae, Canthyloscelidae, Clusiidae, Pachyneuridae, Pantophthalmidae, Periscelididae, Xylomyidae, and Xylophagidae. Saproxylic flies are common inhabitants of virtually all moist to wet microhabitats including sap flows, under bark, in rotting wood, tree hollows, and fungal fruiting bodies.  Most species are saprophagous or fungivorous  although many predatory species exist as well, including some of the most important natural enemies of bark beetles.  Although  very poorly studied compared to beetles, it is clear that many saproxylic fly species are declining due to forest loss or degradation, and some taxa (e.g., mycetophilids) are good indicators of forest continuity.  The dependence of flies on wet or
    even saturated substrates suggests they need special consideration when developing conservation strategies.  Studies  addressing their sensitivity to various management interventions are urgently needed.

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    Michael D. Ulyshen. 2018. Saproxylic Diptera Chapter 5. In: Zoological Monographs series edited by Heike Feldhaar, Tierökoggie I, Universität Bayreuth, Germany and Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Wirbellose Tiere I, Zoologisches Museum, Centrum für Narurkunde, Hamburg, Germany

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