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    Author(s): Kathleen Wolf
    Date: 2017
    Source: In: Ferrini, Francesco; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C.; Fini, Alessio, eds. Routledge handbook of urban forestry. Routledge. New York.
    Publication Series: Book Chapter
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (5.0 MB)


    This book is a first edition technical handbook on a topic that is gaining ever greater attention around the world – urban forestry. Written for international audiences, the book covers a range of conceptual and technical content, including urban forest assessment, planning, and best management practices. Chapters address the full scale of city tree knowledge, from arboricultural activity concerning individual trees to operations across an entire city. Authors were invited to contribute by the editors based on their expertise, so the volume contains the best available science and knowledge about urban forestry. This chapter on social aspects addresses the question of ‘why’ – offering evidence about why urban forests, particularly well managed urban resource systems, are necessary in all urbanized areas. It outlines the social benefits of having high quality trees, stands, and groves in the everyday places of urban living, including public and private properties. Chapter sections address economic values of residential and retail settings, the role of nature in supporting a sense of community and place, social ties, place attachment, issues of crime and safety (including how nature experiences can diminish aggression and violence), attention restoration, environmental equity, cultural expressions of nature, and community resilience. The chapter content was derived from the Green Cities: Good Health web site, a cooperative project of the USDA Forest Service (Research and S&P deputy areas) and University of Washington (Seattle), that is a research synthesis, science delivery product intended for professional and manager audiences.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Wolf, Kathleen L. 2017. Social aspects of urban forestry and metro nature. In: Ferrini, Francesco; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C.; Fini, Alessio, eds. Routledge handbook of urban forestry. Routledge: New York. 65-81. Chapter 5.


    Urban forestry, human health, social benefits, ecosystem services, urban natural resources stewardship, urban planning.

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