Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Rachel A. Sitz; Whitney S. Cranshaw
    Date: 2018
    Source: Annals of the Entomological Society of America. doi: 10.1093/aesa/say015.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (595.0 KB)


    Allokermes galliformis (Riley) (Hemiptera: Kermesidae), sometimes referred to as the ‘pin oak kermes’, has emerged as a significant pest of red oaks grown in the Front Range area of eastern Colorado. Although kermes scales infrequently cause significant tree damage, a novel association exists between the pin oak kermes and the pathogenic bacterium Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina. Together, they produce drippy blight disease of red oaks which is characterized by significant branch dieback. Field studies were conducted in Boulder, CO during 2015–2016 to better understand the life history of A. galliformis and identify points when this insect may be best managed. A. galliformis has a 1-yr life cycle. Upon egg eclosion in September and October, crawlers migrated to textured places on limbs to overwinter. In May, a second migration occurred with the great majority of first instar females moving to new growth and the base of the current season growth where they permanently settled, became sessile and resembled plant galls. Immature male scales remained active and ultimately migrated to the trunk or solid surfaces in the near vicinity of the trunk, produced a cocoon, and subsequently emerged as winged forms in early summer. After mating, females began to produce eggs and peak egg production occurred between mid-August and mid-September when adult females produced an average of 2,488 and 4,726 eggs in 2015 and 2016, respectively.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Sitz, Rachael A.; Cranshaw, Whitney S. 2018. Life history of Allokermes galliformis (Hemiptera: Kermesidae) in Colorado. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. doi: 10.1093/aesa/say015.


    Google Scholar


    pin oak kermes, scale insect, drippy blight, feeding location

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page