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    Author(s): Feng Xu; Xiping WangEd Thomas; Yunfei Liu; Brian K. BrashawRobert J. Ross
    Date: 2018
    Source: Wood and Fiber Science. 50(3): 291-309.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    The objective of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of combining acousticwave data with high-resolution laser scanning data to improve the accuracy of defect detection and quality assessment in hardwood logs. This article (Part 1) focused on exploring the potential of an acoustic impact testing method coupled with advanced waveform analysis to detect internal decay of hardwood logs and classify logs in terms of log quality and potential board grade yields. Twenty-one yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)logs obtained from the Central Appalachian region were evaluated for internal soundness using an acoustic impact testing technique. These logs were then sawn into boards, and the boards were visually graded based on National Hardwood Lumber Association grading rules. The response signals of the logs from acoustic impact tests were analyzed through moment analysis and continuous wavelet transform to extract time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. The results indicated that the acoustic impact test coupled with wavelet analysis is a viable method to evaluate the internal soundness of hardwood logs. Log acoustic velocity alone was able to identify the very low-end logs that have the most severe internal rot or other unsound defects but failed to identify the logs with poor geometry that resulted in very low recovery. Time centroid, damping ratio, and combined time-and frequency-domain parameters were found effective in predicting log quality in terms of board grade yields. Log segregation based on time-domain (time centroid and ρ/Tc2) and frequency-domain (damping ratio and Ed2) parameters showed a positive correlation with the board grade yields.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiping; Thomas, Ed; Liu, Yunfei; Brashaw, Brian K.; Ross, Robert J. 2018. Defect detection and quality assessment of hardwood logs: part 1—acoustic impact test and wavelet analysis. Wood and Fiber Science. 50(3): 291-309.


    Acoustic velocity, board grade, damping ratio, impact test, log defects, dynamic MOE, time centroid, yellow-poplar

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