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    Author(s): Xinying Deng; Anthony J. Kinloch; Soraia Pimenta; Gregory T. Schueneman; Stephan Sprenger; Ambrose C. Taylor; Wern Sze. Teo
    Date: 2018
    Source: In: Proceedings, ECCM18-18th European conference on composite materials. 1-8.
    Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (729.0 KB)


    The fracture properties and toughening mechanisms of cellulose- and cellulose-rubber hybrid-modified epoxy polymers and glass-fibre (GF) composites are investigated. The cellulose modifiers used are microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and the rubber modifiers are carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) and core-shell rubber (CSR). The toughening mechanisms of the MCC-epoxy and CNC-epoxy were identified to be crack deflection, shear band yielding, particle rupture or pull-out and debonding of the cellulose particles, which was followed by plastic void growth. An additive toughening effect is observed for the hybrid polymers. Analytical modelling of the fracture energies showed that the particle pull-out toughening contribution is negligible for CNC-epoxy, and the particle debonding and rupture toughening contributions are negligible for MCC-epoxy. The GF composites were manufactured using the wet-layup process. Cellulose modifiers did not increase the composite propagation fracture energy (GC,prop) but slight increases in GC,prop occurred for the CNC hybrids. Increases in the fibre-matrix adhesion reduced the fibre toughening mechanisms in the composites that were modified with only MCC or CNC. The crack tip deformation zone is smaller than the MCC particles, reducing their toughening ability in the GF composites.

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    Deng, Xinying; Kinloch, Anthony J.; Pimenta, Soraia; Schueneman, Gregory T.; Sprenger, Stephan; Taylor, Ambrose C.; Teo, Wern Sze. 2018. Toughening epoxy composites using nano and microcellulose modifiers. In: Proceedings, ECCM18-18th European Conference on Composite Materials. 24-28 June. Athens, Greece. pp. 1-8.


    Cellulose, hybrid, fracture energy, glass-fibre composites, analytical modeling

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