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    The effects of temperature and copper catalyst concentration on the formation of graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles (GECNs) were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that higher amounts of copper atoms facilitated the growth of more graphene islands and formed smaller size GECNs. A copper catalyst facilitated the decomposition of lignin at the lowest temperature studied (600°C). Increasing the temperature up to 1000°C retarded the degradation process, while assisting the reconfiguration of the defective sites of the graphene layers, thus producing higher-quality GECNs.

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    Leng, Weiqi; Barnes, H.; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei. 2017. Temperature and copper concentration effects on the formation of graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles from kraft lignin. Materials. 10(6): 677-686.


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    Temperature, copper concentration, graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles

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