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    Conventional methods utilized for clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases have employed invasive medical procedures that cause stress, anxiety and pain to patients. These methods are often expensive, time-consuming, and require sophisticated chemical-analysis instruments and advanced modeling procedures to achieve diagnostic interpretations. This paper reviews recent applications of simpler, electronic-nose (e-nose) devices for the noninvasive early diagnosis of a wide range of GI diseases by collective analysis of headspace volatile organic compound (VOC)-metabolites from clinical samples to produce disease-specific aroma signatures (VOC profiles). A different “metabolomics” approach to GI disease diagnostics, involving identifications and quantifications of disease VOC-metabolites, are compared to the electronic-nose approach based on diagnostic costs, accuracy, advantages and disadvantages. The importance of changes in gut microbiome composition that result from disease are discussed relative to effects on disease detection. A new diagnostic approach, which combines the use of e-nose instruments for early rapid prophylactic disease-screenings with targeted identification of known disease biomarkers, is proposed to yield cheaper, quicker and more dependable diagnostic results. Some priority future research needs and coordination for bringing e-nose instruments into routine clinical practice are summarized

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    Wilson, A.D. 2018. Application of electronic-nose technologies and VOC-biomarkers for the noninvasive early diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. Sensors. 18(8): 2613.


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    bacterial dysbiosis, early noninvasive diagnoses, electronic aroma detection, e-nose devices, GI-disease biomarkers, healthcare applications, metabolite profiles, point-of-care testing, volatile organic compounds

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