Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Joseph Buongiorno; Craig Johnston
    Date: 2018
    Source: Forest Science
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (147.0 KB)


    This study explored the consequences for long-term projections and impact analysis of the uncertainty in model parameters and initial conditions. Using the Global Forest Products Model, multiple replications of projections were carried out with parameters or initial condition data sampled randomly from their assumed distribution. The results showed that parameter uncertainty led to uncertainty of the projections increasing steadily with the time horizon, and more rapidly than the uncertainty stemming from initial conditions. Among the parameter uncertainties, those in the supply and demand elasticities tended to dominate the uncertainty in the other parameters describing forest growth, manufacturing activities, and trade inertia. In an application to impact analysis it was found that, due only to the uncertainty of the model parameters, and conditional on other assumptions, an assumed rise in global temperature of 2.8 °C over a century caused the forest stock in 2065 to be 2.4% to 4.0% higher in developed countries, and 2.5% to 3.9% lower in developing countries, with 68% probability, a conservative estimate of the true uncertainty given all the other factors involved in such a prediction.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Buongiorno, Joseph; Johnston, Craig. 2018. Potential effects of US protectionism and trade wars on the global forest sector. Forest Science. 64(2): 121-128.


    Google Scholar


    economics, forest products, international trade, welfare, free trade, protectionism

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page