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    Author(s): Robert E. KeaneSamuel A. Cushman
    Date: 2018
    Source: The Wildlife Professional. September/October: 48-52.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (474.0 KB)


    It’s late fall in the high mountains of western North America and the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests are alive with activity. Birds and mammals are feasting on the pine’s copious amounts of large seeds. When the cones ripen, the competition for the fatty, nutritious seeds - which contain “more energy than chocolate per unit of weight” according to the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology - is a sight to see.

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    Keane, Robert E.; Cushman, Samuel A. 2018. Best friends forever: The whitebark pine and Clark's nutcracker. The Wildlife Professional. September/October: 48-52.


    whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, Clark’s nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana

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