Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    This study examined in detail the utility and validity of water retention value (WRV) for characterizing the extent of fibrillation of micro and nanofibrils. A bleached pulp fiber sample was either refined to different degrees using a PFI mill or milled for different time periods using a SuperMassColloider (SMC), to produce micro and nanofibril samples. These fibril samples were then characterized by electronic microscopic imaging (SEM and TEM), degree of polymerization (DP), Canadian Standard Freeness (CSF), enzymatic adsorption (EA), enzymatic cellulose digestibility (ED), as well as WRV measured under different relative centrifugation forces and durations. The results showed that WRV characterization is consistent with SEM and TEM imagingand correlate to sample DP, EA, and ED. CSF is a good measure for fiber samples, but is not sensitive and not suitable for characterizing microfibrils and nanofibrils. DP is a good measure of cellulose chain length or fiber cutting, but is not a sensitive measure for extensive fibrillation. The results also indicate that the centrifugation condition did not affect the effectiveness of WRV for characterizing fibril samples, as long as all samples were tested under the same conditions. A mild centrifugation condition, e.g., 3000g for 15 min, appears to have better sensitivity for characterizing fibril samples.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Cai, Zhaosheng; Xue, Feng; Jin, Yongcan; Zhu, J.Y. 2018. Water retention value for characterizing fibrillation degree of cellulosic fibers at micro and nanometer scales. Cellulose. 25(5): 2861-2871.


    Google Scholar


    Water retention value, cellulose, cellulose nanofibrils, refining, milling, fibrillation

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page