Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Tyler Dreaden; Marc Hughes; Randy Ploetz; Adam Black; Jason Smith
    Date: 2019
    Source: Forests
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Laurel wilt is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva, a nutritional symbiont of its vector the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff. Both are native to Asia but appeared in Georgia in the early 2000s. Laurel wilt has since spread to much of the southeastern United States killing >300 million host trees in the Lauraceae plant family. The aims of this research were to elucidate the genetic structure of populations of R. lauricola, to examine its reproductive strategy, and determine how often the pathogen had been introduced to the USA. A panel of 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers identified 15 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) in a collection of 59 isolates from the USA (34 isolates), Myanmar (18), Taiwan (6) and Japan (1). Limited diversity in the USA isolates and the presence of one MAT idiotype (mating type locus) indicated that R. lauricola was probably introduced into the country a single time. MLG diversity was far greater in Asia than the USA. Only three closely related MLGs were detected in the USA, the most prevalent of which (30 of 34 isolates) was also found in Taiwan. Although more work is needed, the present results suggest that a Taiwanese origin is possible for the population of R. lauricola in the USA. Isolates of R. lauricola from Myanmar were distinct from those from Japan, Taiwan and the USA. Although both MAT idiotypes were present in Myanmar and Taiwan, only the population from Taiwan had the genetic structure of a sexually reproducing population.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Dreaden, Tyler; Hughes, Marc; Ploetz, Randy; Black, Adam; Smith, Jason. 2019. Genetic Analyses of the Laurel Wilt Pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, in Asia Provide Clues on the Source of the Clone that is Responsible for the Current USA Epidemic. Forests. 10(1): 37-.


    Google Scholar


    Ophiostomatales, microsatellite markers, SSR, forest health, introduced pathogen

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page