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    The paper industry produces a large volume of paper sludge as a byproduct of the paper making process. This results in a substantial environmental burden to the industry from the high levels of heavy metals contained in the sludge and can limit land management applications. Biochar may have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of paper sludge by immobilizing heavy metals in soil. In this study, modified rice straw biochars were produced using a gradient of heat treatments and potassium permanganate activation levels. The physiochemical and morphological properties of the produced biochars were characterized by FT-IR, ESEM-EDAX, BET, etc. The performances of the biochar on the immobilization of Cd and Pb in paper sludge were also studied by percolation leaching columns experiments to determine the potential use of biochars for remediation of soil contaminated by paper sludge. Results indicated that both pyrolysis temperature and KMnO4 concentration significantly affected the physical and chemical properties of the biochars. The biochar yield decreased with the increase of heating temperature, while increased with the increase of KMnO4 concentration. The pH and ash content of the biochar samples increased with the increases of both heating temperature and KMnO4 concentration. The SSA value increased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, while SSA decreased with the increase of KMnO4 concentration. The Cd concentration of leachates with the addition of rice biochars was about 13-25% lower than the control. However, the biochars used in this study did not reduce the leaching Pb. The rice biochar additions showed clear potential for Cd immobilization, but were not suitable for immobilization of Pb.

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    Liu, Guohua; Lin, Shahua; Pile, Lauren S.; Fang, Zheng; Wang, G. Geoff. 2018. Effect of potassium permanganate and pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced from rice straw and suitability of biochars for heavy metal (CD & PB) immobilization in paper sludge. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 27(12A): 9008-9018.


    Pyrolysis temperature, Potassium permanganate, Biochar, Characterization, Heavy metals, Paper sludge

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