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    Author(s): Torda Varga; Krisztina Krizsán; Csenge Földi; Bálint Dima; Marisol Sánchez-García; Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez; Gergely J. Szöllősi; János G. Szarkándi; Viktor Papp; László Albert; William Andreopoulos; Claudio Angelini; Vladimír Antonín; Kerrie W. Barry; Neale L. Bougher; Peter Buchanan; Bart Buyck; Viktória Bense; Pam Catcheside; Mansi Chovatia; Jerry Cooper; Wolfgang Dämon; Dennis Desjardin; Péter Finy; József Geml; Sajeet Haridas; Karen Hughes; Alfredo Justo; Dariusz Karasiński; Ivona Kautmanova; Brigitta Kiss; Sándor Kocsubé; Heikki Kotiranta; Kurt M. LaButti; Bernardo E. Lechner; Kare Liimatainen; Anna Lipzen; Zoltán Lukács; Sirma Mihaltcheva; Louis N. Morgado; Tuula Niskanen; Machiel E. Noordeloos; Robin A. Ohm; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Clark Ovrebo; Nikolett Rácz; Robert Riley; Anton Savchenko; Anton Shiryaev; Karl Soop; Viacheslav Spirin; Csilla Szebenyi; Michal Tomšovský; Rodham E. Tulloss; Jessie Uehling; Igor V Grigoriev; Csaba Vágvölgyi; Tamás Papp; Francis M. Martin; Otto Miettinen; David S. Hibbett; László G. Nagy
    Date: 2019
    Source: Nature Ecology & Evolution
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (4.0 MB)

    Description

    Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.

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    Citation

    Varga, Torda; Krizsán, Krisztina; Földi, Csenge; Dima, Bálint; Sánchez-García, Marisol; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Szarkándi, János G.; Papp, Viktor; Albert, László; Andreopoulos, William; Angelini, Claudio; Antonín, Vladimír; Barry, Kerrie W.; Bougher, Neale L.; Buchanan, Peter; Buyck, Bart; Bense, Viktória; Catcheside, Pam; Chovatia, Mansi; Cooper, Jerry; Dämon, Wolfgang; Desjardin, Dennis; Finy, Péter; Geml, József; Haridas, Sajeet; Hughes, Karen; Justo, Alfredo; Karasiński, Dariusz; Kautmanova, Ivona; Kiss, Brigitta; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kotiranta, Heikki; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lechner, Bernardo E.; Liimatainen, Kare; Lipzen, Anna; Lukács, Zoltán; Mihaltcheva, Sirma; Morgado, Louis N.; Niskanen, Tuula; Noordeloos, Machiel E.; Ohm, Robin A.; Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz; Ovrebo, Clark; Rácz, Nikolett; Riley, Robert; Savchenko, Anton; Shiryaev, Anton; Soop, Karl; Spirin, Viacheslav; Szebenyi, Csilla; Tomšovský, Michal; Tulloss, Rodham E.; Uehling, Jessie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás; Martin, Francis M.; Miettinen, Otto; Hibbett, David S.; Nagy, László G. 2019. Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2: 850-. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1.

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/57938