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    Author(s): Peter L. Lorio
    Date: 1996
    Source: Pages 200-210 in M. J. Mattson, P. Niemala, and M. Rousi, eds. Dynamics of Forest Herbivory: Quest for Pattern and Principle.USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-183, N.C. For. Exp. Sta., St. Paul, MN 55108
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (1.0 MB)

    Description

    There are a number of ways to approach the problem of assessing the effects of environmental conditions, such as water regime, on tree physiological responses and resistance to bark beetle attack.It helps to keep in mind that environmental factors operate throught physiological processes (Fig. 1, and Kramer 1986), and that there are concepts, such as plant growth-differentiation balance (Loomis 1932) and carbon-nutrient balance (Bryant et al. 1983; Tuomi 1992; Tuomi et al. 1988, 1990), that can provided bases for forming testable hypotheses.It is especially important to know as much as possible about the host tree and the specific bark beetle of interest.Observational studies are particularly important because they can provide a baseline for interpreting the results of manipulative studies.Whenever feasible, it is especially helpful in manipulative studies to characterize environmental conditions before and during a study.Because physiological changes that occur during ontogeny of trees can alter their susceptibility to herbivores, knowledge of tree stage growth and development can be especially helpful.

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    Citation

    Lorio, Peter L., Jr. 1996. Approaches to studying environmental effects on resistance of Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Pages 200-210 in M. J. Mattson, P. Niemala, and M. Rousi, eds. Dynamics of Forest Herbivory: Quest for Pattern and Principle.USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-183, N.C. For. Exp. Sta., St. Paul, MN 55108

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