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    Author(s): Ted J. Christian; Robert J. Yokelson; João A. Carvalho; David W. T. Griffith; Ernesto C. Alvarado; José C. Santos; Turibio Gomes Soares Neto; Carlos A. Gurgel Veras; Wei Min. Hao
    Date: 2007
    Source: Journal of Geophysical Research. 112(D18): 955.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (389.0 KB)

    Description

    Earlier work showed that Amazonian biomass burning produces both lofted and initially unlofted emissions in large amounts. A mobile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) measured the unlofted emissions of 17 trace gases from residual smoldering combustion (RSC) of logs as part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) during the 2004 Amazonian dry season. The RSC emissions were highly variable and the few earlier RSC measurements lay near the high end of combustion efficiency observed in this study. Fuel consumption by RSC was ∼5% of total for a planned deforestation fire. Much regional RSC probably occurs in the residual woody debris burned during pasture maintenance fires. RSC could increase estimated total fire emissions for the Amazon region by 20–50% for several important VOC. FTIR emissions measurements of burning dung (in a pasture) showed high emission ratios foracetic acid and ammonia to CO (6.6 ± 3.4% and 8.9 ± 2.1%). Large emissions of nitrogen containing trace gases from burning dung and crop waste could mean that biomass burning in India produces more particle mass than previously assumed. Measurements of late-stage kiln emissions suggested that VOC/CO may increase as carbonization is extended. A cook stove emitted many VOC and NH3 far outside the range observed for open wood cooking fires. Enclosed/vented cooking stoves may change the chemistry of the smoke that is emitted.

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    Citation

    Christian, Ted J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Carvalho, João A.; Griffith, David W. T.; Alvarado, Ernesto C.; Santos, José C.; Neto, Turibio Gomes Soares; Veras, Carlos A. Gurgel; Hao, Wei Min. 2007. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Trace gases emitted by smoldering logs and dung from deforestation and pasture fires in Brazil. Journal of Geophysical Research. 112(D18): 955.

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    Keywords

    fire emissions, unlofted emissions, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), trace gases, residual smoldering combustion (RSC), deforestation, pasture fires, Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE)

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