Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Bruce G. Marcot; Michael H. Hoff; Craig D. Martin; Susan D. Jewell; Carrie E. Givens
    Date: 2019
    Source: Management of Biological Invasions. 10(2): 200-226.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.0 MB)


    An increasing threat to U.S. waterways is the establishment and spread of invasive and injurious fishes. A species may be designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as federally “injurious” under the Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42) either if that species causes harm (injury) without establishing and spreading (not invasive), or if that species causes harm after establishment and spread (invasive). Species designated as injurious are prohibited from being imported, which is a highly effective way of preventing invasions by nonnative species. We developed a decision-support, risk assessment system to aid USFWS’s prioritization of species for injuriousness. Our system is based on USFWS’s evaluation criteria of a species’ potential injuriousness and consists of a semi-quantitative, rapid-assessment procedure called the Ecological Risk Screening Summary (ERSS) and a quantitative probability network model called the Freshwater Fish Injurious Species Risk Assessment Model (FISRAM). ERSS provides information on a species’ history of invasiveness elsewhere in the world, and on its biology and ecology, potential or known effects of introduction, global and domestic distribution, and climate associations, and provides conclusions on potential risk of invasiveness. FISRAM calculates expected probability of injuriousness as a function of species potential establishment, spread, and harm, based on probable effects on native species and ecosystems, suitability of climate and habitat in introduced areas, ease of dispersal and transport, and harm to humans. FISRAM is used to assess risk probability when ERSS categorizes invasion risk as uncertain. We calibrated and updated the probability structure of FISRAM using a data set of 50 species with known invasiveness outcomes. We demonstrate the use of these two models for risk assessment and decision-support in identifying and documenting species for potential risk management actions, such as listing wildlife as injurious under the Lacey Act.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Marcot, Bruce G.; Hoff, Michael H.; Martin, Craig D.; Jewell, Susan D.; Givens, Carrie E. 2019. A decision support system for identifying potentially invasive and injurious freshwater fishes. Management of Biological Invasions. 10(2): 200-226.


    Google Scholar


    Invasive species, decision support model, Lacey Act, rapid screening, risk assessment, risk management.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page