Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): David E. Kretschmann; J. G. Isebrands; Glen Stanosz; John R. Dramm; Adele Olstad; David Cole; Jay Samsel
    Source: (Research paper FPL ; RP-573):8 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
    Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (581 KB)


    The Lake States of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin consist of 49.4 million hectares (122 million acres) of land, 19.8 million hectares (49 million acres) of which are forested, with 6% of those having been removed by law from timber production. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) is an important component of this resource. In recent years, a concern that the aspen cut will exceed its growth has surfaced. That is, Will the aspen supply be adequate to support the growing solid-wood, composite, and paper industries in the Lake States region? To satisfy the increased demand for forest products, it is expected that much of the future timber supply will be from improved trees grown on managed plantations. It is critical that the mechanical properties of this resource are clearly understood so that alternative uses of this material can be evaluated. A study was conducted using full-size lumber tests on 243 38- by 89-mm (2- by 4-in.; hereafter called 2 by 4as) boards cut, using two methods, from 50 logs to determine selected mechanical and physical properties of the Wisconsin-5 hybrid poplar clone. The material was either kiln dried or partially air dried followed by kiln drying. The 2 by 4as were assigned grades according to four grading rules: Light Framing, Structural Light Framing, Structural Lamination, and Machine Stress Rating. Results suggest that this poplar clone would produce visually graded material that is similar in properties and characteristics to the native aspen and cottonwood resource. Close to 65% of the material produced made grades of either Standard and better or No. 2. The Machine Stress Rating grade most likely to be produced from this material would be 1450f11.3E. To avoid excessive degrade as a result of warping during drying, this material should be dried in flitch form.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Kretschmann, David E.; Isebrands, J. G..; Stanosz, Glen.; Dramm, John R.; Olstad, Adele.; Cole, David.; Samsel, Jay. Structural lumber properties of hybrid poplar. (Research paper FPL ; RP-573):8 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.


    Populus, Lumber, Mechanical properties, Structural timbers

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page