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    Exotic (= alien, non-native) forest insects are moved between countries in many ways, but primarily through wood packaging material (WPM; e.g., pallets and crating) and live plants. Other means include international trade in logs, firewood, processed wood items, passenger baggage, mail, as well as hitchhiking on such items as shipping containers, ships, aircraft, and machinery (Meurisse et al. 2018). Historically, WPM has commonly contained bark- and woodinfesting insects because it was often made from recently cut trees with some bark retained, which is attractive to many borers that infest dying and recently cut trees (Eyre and Haack 2017, Haack 2006). Travel times between countries is usually very short, being a matter of hours (air travel) to days (ocean vessels), and thus has little impact on insect survival.

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    Haack, Robert A. 2018. Exotic forest pests in Michigan: current and potential invaders. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society. 62(2): 5-8.

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