Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Ronald S. Zalesny; Craig M. Stange; Bruce A. Birr
    Date: 2019
    Source: Forests
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (3.0 MB)


    Salt-affected soils in the Northern Great Plains, USA, can impact the long-term survival and growth of trees recommended for agroforestry systems, with Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) being one of few options that survives on these sites. Similarly, hybrid poplars have been used for phytotechnologies on high-salinity soils throughout the world. The objective of this study was to test the survival, height growth, and phytoextraction potential of eight hybrid poplar clones (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. × P. nigra L. 'Robusta', 'DN17', 'DN182', 'DN5'; P. deltoides × P. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NC14104', 'NC14106'; P. nigra × P. maximowiczii 'NM2', 'NM6') versus Russian olive grown on soils categorized according to initial salinity levels: low (0.1 to 3.9 dS m-1), medium (4.0 to 5.9 dS m-1), and high (6.0 to 10.0 dS m-1). Seven trees per genotype were grown in each salinity treatment at a spacing of 3 × 3 m for four years in Burleigh County, North Dakota. Survival and height were determined following the first four growing seasons, and leaf phytoextraction potential of Al, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn was measured for one-year-old trees. Soil salinity decreased over time, reflecting the phytoextraction potential of the trees. Russian olive did not survive as well as expected, having lower overall survival than three of the hybrid poplar clones ('DN17', 'DN5', 'NM6'). At the end of three years when trees were removed per a landowner maintenance agreement, 86%, 71%, and 43% of the Russian olive trees were alive in the low-, medium-, and high-salinity soils, respectively. At this time, 'NM2' was the only hybrid poplar clone with similar survival to Russian olive in the high-salinity soils. Russian olive had greater Na, Cd, and Fe leaf concentrations than the hybrid poplar clones, but it also had the worst uptake of Ca and Mg of all genotypes. For hybrid poplar, the P. deltoides × P. nigra genomic group had the broadest clonal variability among all traits, with 'Robusta' and 'DN182' exhibiting great potential for establishment on high-salinity soils. 'Robusta' and 'DN17' are the same genotype but they came from di erent nursery sources (i.e., hence their di erent nomenclature), and they did not di er for height nor leaf phytoextraction. Populus deltoides × P. maximowiczii clones were not suitable for the soil conditions and silvicultural applications (e.g., tree shelters) of the current study, while P. nigra × P. maximowiczii clones exhibited the most stable performance across all years and salinity treatments. Both 'NM2' and 'NM6' had superior fourth-year survival and height, as well as average or above average phytoextraction of all elements tested.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Zalesny, Ronald S.; Stange, Craig M.; Birr, Bruce A. 2019. Survival, Height Growth, and Phytoextraction Potential of Hybrid Poplar and Russian Olive (Elaeagnus Angustifolia L.) Established on Soils Varying in Salinity in North Dakota, USA. Forests. 10(8): 672. 19 p.


    Google Scholar


    agroforestry, metal uptake, phytoremediation, phytotechnologies, Populus, salt uptake

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page