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    Lignin graphene oxide was oxidized after Kraft lignin was graphitized by thermal catalytic conversion. The reduced lignin graphene oxide was derived from lignin graphene oxide through thermal reduction treatment. These Kraft lignin, lignin graphite, lignin graphene oxide, and reduced lignin graphene oxide were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, raman microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed lignin graphite converted from Kraft lignin had fewer layers with smaller lateral size than natural graphite. Moreover, lignin graphene oxide was successfully produced from lignin graphite by an oxidation reaction with an hour-long reaction time, which has remarkably shorter reaction time than that of graphene oxide made from natural graphite. Meanwhile, this lignin-derived graphene oxide had the same XRD, FTIR and Raman peaks as graphene oxide oxidized from natural graphite. The SEM, TEM, and AFM images showed that this lignin graphene oxide with 1–3 average layers has a smaller lateral size than that of graphene oxide made from natural graphite. Moreover, the lignin graphene oxide can be reduced to reduced lignin graphene oxide to fabricate graphene-based aerogel, wire, and flm for some potential applications.

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    Li, Jinghao; Yan, Qiangu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Jilei; Cai, Zhiyong. 2019. Efficient conversion of lignin waste to high value bio-graphene oxide nanomaterials. Polymers. 11(4). 12 p.


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    Kraft lignin, lignin graphite, lignin graphene oxide, reduced lignin graphene oxide, characterization, applications

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