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    Physiological responses to temperature extremes are considered strong drivers of species’ demographic responses to climate variability. Plants are typically classified as either avoiders or tolerators in their freezing‐resistance mechanism, but a gradient of physiological‐threshold freezing responses may exist among individuals of a species. Moreover, adaptive significance of physiological freezing responses is poorly characterized, particularly under warming conditions that relax selection on cold hardiness.

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    Lazarus, Brynne E.; Germino, Matthew J.; Richardson, Bryce A. 2019. Freezing resistance, safety margins, and survival vary among big sagebrush populations across the western United States. American Journal of Botany. 106(7): 922-934.


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    Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae, cold hardiness, freezing avoidance, freezing resistance, freezing tolerance, freezing safety margin, ice nucleation temperature, LT50, relaxed selection

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