Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub

    Description

    The description and analysis of landscape patterns became a central research issue in landscape ecology with the emergence of the pattern-process hypothesis (Turner and Gardner 1991). The earliest references to landscape pattern metrics or indices in the peerreviewed literature were in 1987 and 1988 (Fig. 1a). Gardner et al. (1987) compared the number, size, and perimeters of patches across real and simulated landscapes and established the neutral model concept for comparing landscape patterns. Krummel et al. (1987) demonstrated the first multi-scale index—a fractal dimension describing perimeter-area scaling— while Milne (1988) demonstrated an entire class of multi-scale indices based on fractal geometry. O’Neill et al. (1988) introduced the dominance and contagion indices, the latter of which extended the Shannon species diversity index (e.g. Pielou 1975) to describe the diversity of spatial adjacencies on a map. Those and other early methods capitalized on concepts or metrics developed in diverse fields such as information theory, percolation theory, classical ecology, and fractal geometry.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to pubrequest@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Riitters, Kurt; Vogt, Peter; Wickham, James. 2019. Describing and analyzing landscape patterns: where are we now, and where are we going?. Landscape Ecology. 34:2049-2055. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-019-00889-6.

    Cited

    Google Scholar

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/58674