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    Three decades ago I became interested in measuring the spatial patterns of sun-flecks to estimate canopy light transmission. While many measurement approaches and pattern metrics had been described (e.g., Peitgen and Saupe 1988; Glassner 1990; Pickover 1990; Turner and Gardner 1991; Gonzalez and Woods 1992), there was no comprehensive software implementation of them. I wrote a computer program to calculate many of those metrics (and added a few of my own) using undercanopy photographs, but an opportune discussion with Bob O’Neill resulted in my never applying the program for that purpose. Bob’s explanation of landscape ecology was encouraging, and his advice was characteristically sage and succinct: ‘‘The pattern stuff is good, but you’re working at the wrong scale.’’

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    Riitters, Kurt. 2018. Pattern metrics for a transdisciplinary landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology. 34:2057-2063.


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