Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Kraft lignin was catalytically graphitized to graphene-based nanostructures at 1000 C under argon atmosphere with four iron catalysts, iron(III) nitrate (Fe-N); iron(II) chloride (Fe-Cl2); iron(III) chloride (Fe-Cl3); and iron(II) sulfate (Fe-S). The catalytic decomposition process of iron-promoted lignin materials was examined using thermalgravimetric analysis and temperature-programmed decomposition methods. The crystal structure, morphology and surface area of produced materials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman, scanning electronmicroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption–desorption techniques. Experimental results indicated that iron nitrate catalyst had better iron dispersion three other iron salts. Iron nitrate was the most active catalyst among four iron salts. The low activity of iron in iron chloride-promoted samples was because the residual chlorine over iron surfaces prevent iron interaction with lignin functional groups.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Yan, Qiangu; Li, Jinghao; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Jilei; Cai, Zhiyong. 2018. Synthetic bio-graphene based nanomaterials through different iron catalysts. Nanomaterials. 8(10). 19 p.


    Google Scholar


    kraft lignin, catalytic thermal decomposition, carbon-based nanomaterials, iron(III) nitrate, iron(II) sulfate, iron(II) chloride, iron(III) chloride

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page