Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Nayomi Z. PlazaJoseph E. JakesCharles R. FrihartChristopher G. HuntDaniel J. YelleLinda F. Lorenz; William T. Heller; Sai Venkatesh Pingali; Donald S. Stone
    Date: 2017
    Source: Forest Products Journal. 68(4): 349-352.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (209.0 KB)


    Wood-based products can be a sustainable and more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional construction materials because of their reduced contribution to air and water pollution. An integral component of these products is often an adhesive. Because wood is hygroscopic, moisture-induced swelling in the cell walls near the wood–adhesive bond lines can lead to durability and performance issues. Unfortunately, researchers working toward improving the moisture durability of forest products are hindered by an incomplete understanding of the nanoscale mechanisms that contribute to moisture-induced swelling in wood and how chemical modifications affect the swelling. Therefore, we developed small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into a tool that can study the 1-to 100-nm structure of unmodified and chemically modified wood cell walls and can measure the effects of moisture in this structure. In this study, SANS was used to reveal the nanostructure of a deuterium-labeled phenol-formaldehyde (dPF) adhesive infiltrated into wood cell walls. The results revealed that the dPF infiltrated the water-accessible regions between the elementary fibrils inside the wood cell walls. These results provide the new insight that adhesive infiltration into the cellulose microfibril (a bundle of elementary fibrils) may be a key to designing moisture-durable wood adhesives.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Plaza, Nayomi Z.; Jakes, Joseph E.; Frihart, Charles R.; Hunt, Christopher G.; Yelle, Daniel J.; Lorenz, Linda F.; Heller, William T.; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Stone, Donald S. 2017. Small-angle neutron scattering as a new tool to evaluate moisture-induced swelling in the nanostructure of chemically modified wood cell walls. Forest Products Journal. 68(4): 349-352.


    Wood adhesive, neutron scattering, infiltration

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page