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    Author(s): Todd Ristau
    Date: 2019
    Source: In: Stout, Susan L., ed. SILVAH: 50 years of science-management cooperation. Proceedings of the Allegheny Society of American Foresters training session; 2017 Sept. 20-22; Clarion, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-186. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 44-55.
    Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (305.0 KB)

    Description

    Dense rhizomatous herbaceous ferns such as hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) and New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis), graminoids such as bearded shorthusk (Brachelytrum erectum), Danthonia spp., and Carex sp. ground cover, and woody understories of striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), and sweet birch (Betula lenta) are found throughout the Allegheny Plateau region and beyond (Allegheny National Forest 1995, Horsley 1991). Considerable evidence suggests these ground cover layers are caused by long-term browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Horsley et al. 2003, Tilghman 1989). Once these plants occupy the understory, they interfere strongly with the regeneration and establishment of desirable woody species (Horsley 1993a, 1993b; Horsley and Marquis 1983). Established methods for controlling interfering plants have been used since the 1980s (Horsley 1988b, Horsley and Bjorkbom 1983, Horsley and Marquis 1983). Earlier research in the Allegheny hardwood type showed that a tank mix of the herbicides glyphosate and sulfometuron methyl effectively, economically, and safely removes interfering plants and minimizes their impact on regeneration so desirable hardwood species can become established (Horsley 1981, 1982, 1988a, 1990a, 1990b, 1991, 1994; Horsley and Marquis 1983; McCormick et al. 1991). The herbicide application is typically associated with a shelterwood seed cut to promote the establishment of desirable woody species (Horsley and Marquis 1983). Since the early research was completed, changes in products labeled for forestry use and differences among contractors often have resulted in operational reports of unacceptable and incomplete control of the targeted species.

    Publication Notes

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    Citation

    Ristau, Todd. 2019. Using herbicides to control interfering understories in the Allegheny hardwood stands, 2. Sharpening the tools in the toolbox. In: Stout, Susan L., ed. SILVAH: 50 years of science-management cooperation. Proceedings of the Allegheny Society of American Foresters training session; 2017 Sept. 20-22; Clarion, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-186. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 44-55. https://doi.org/10.2737/NRS-GTR-P-186-Paper5.

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