Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Natasha A. James
    Date: 2019
    Source: e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-245
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    The agency responsible for Costa Rica’s payment for ecosystem services (PES) program (Pagos de Servicios Ambientales, PSA) has been charged with developing mechanisms to increase cost-effectiveness in the forest protection program. One possible mechanism that can be used to achieve this goal is conservation auctions. While a trial run or a pilot auction could be useful in exploring possible auction designs or to identify possible unintended consequences, these options often require significant financial and political support. An alternative way to explore possible auction designs is by simulating participation and conservation outcomes using models, such as an agent-based model (ABM). Using the ODD (overview, design concepts, and details) protocol published in 2006 and updated in 2010, this report describes the structure of an ABM used to examine possible results of introducing a conservation auction to allocate contracts in Costa Rica’s PSA forest protection program.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    James, Natasha A. 2019. Using agent-based models to examine implications of introducing conservation auctions in Costa Rica: overview, design concepts, and details (ODD) protocol for a conservation auction agent-based model (CA-ABM). e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-245. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 10 p.


    Google Scholar


    Agent-based modeling, conservation auction, informational rents, payment for ecosystem services, strategic behavior

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page