Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Michelle C. Kondo; Margarita Triguero-Mas; David Donaire-Gonzalez; Edmund Seto; Antònia Valentín; Gemma Hurst; Glòria Carrasco-Turigas; Daniel Masterson; Albert Ambròs; Naomi Ellis; Wim Swart; Nora Davis; Jolanda Maas; Michael Jerrett; Christopher J. Gidlow; Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen
    Date: 2020
    Source: Environment International
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.0 MB)


    Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) has been shown in population-level studies to reduce anxiety and psychological distress. This study investigated how exposure to one's everyday natural outdoor environments over one week influenced mood among residents of four European cities including Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands) and Kaunas (Lithuania). Participants (n=368) wore a smartphone equipped with software applications to track location and mood (using mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) software), for seven consecutive days. We estimated random-effects ordered logistic regression models to examine the association between mood (positive and negative affect), and exposure to green space, represented by two binary variables indicating exposure versus no exposure to NOE using GPS tracking and satellite and aerial imagery, 10 and 30 min prior to participants' completing the EMA. Models were adjusted for home city, day of the week, hour of the day, EMA survey type, residential NOE exposure, and sex, age, education level, mental health status and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In addition, we tested for heterogeneity of effect by city, sex, age, residential NOE exposure and mental health status. Within 10 min of NOE exposure, compared to non-exposure, we found that overall there was a positive relationship with positive affect (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.81) of EMA surveys, and non-significant negative association with negative affect (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10). When stratifying, associations were consistently found for Stoke-on-Trent inhabitants and men, while findings by age group were inconsistent. Weaker and less consistent associations were found for exposure 30 min prior to EMA. Our findings support increasing evidence of psychological and mental health benefits of exposure to natural outdoor environments, especially among urban populations such as those included in our study.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Kondo, Michelle C.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Valentín, Antònia; Hurst, Gemma; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Masterson, Daniel; Ambròs, Albert; Ellis, Naomi; Swart, Wim; Davis, Nora; Maas, Jolanda; Jerrett, Michael; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J. 2020. Momentary mood response to natural outdoor environments in four European cities. Environment International. 134(4): 105237-.


    Google Scholar


    Ecological momentary assessment, Green space and health, Mood

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page