Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Qiangu Yan; Xuefeng Zhang; Jinghao Li; El Barbary Hassan; Chuji Wang; Jilei Zhang; Zhiyong Cai
    Date: 2018
    Source: Journal of Materials Science. 53(11): 8020-8029.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Kraft lignin was catalytic graphitized by iron at 1000 C in argon, hydrogen, CO2, methane, and natural gas atmospheres, respectively. The effect of atmospheric agent types on product distribution (gas, liquid, and solid carbon yields) was analyzed. The solid products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Experimental results have shown that the degree of graphitization of Kraft lignin depends not only on the highest temperature, but also the type of ambient gas phase during heat treatment. Methane and natural gas in the ambient gas phase seem to accelerate the formation of multilayer graphene materials with a range of 2–30 layers, and hydrogen and carbon dioxide have an etching effect on solid carbon species during the catalytic graphitization process, while multilayer graphene-encapsulated iron nanoparticles were the main products in the case of argon.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Yan, Qiangu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Jinghao; Hassan, El Barbary; Wang, Chuji; Zhang, Jilei; Cai, Zhiyong. 2018. Catalytic conversion of Kraft lignin to bio-multilayer graphene materials under different atmospheres. Journal of Materials Science. 53(11): 8020-8029.


    Google Scholar


    Lignin, graphene, biomaterial, graphite

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page