Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Richard A. Birdsey; Alexa J. Dugan; Sean P. Healey; Karen Dante-Wood; Fangmin Zhang; Gang Mo; Jing M. Chen; Alexander J. Hernandez; Crystal L. Raymond; James McCarter
    Date: 2019
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-402. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 116 pages plus appendices.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (23.0 MB)


    This report assesses how carbon stocks at regional scales and in individual national forests are affected by factors such as timber harvesting, natural disturbances, climate variability, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and nitrogen deposition. Previous baseline assessments of carbon stocks ( evaluated observed trends based on forest inventory data but were limited in ability to reveal detailed causes of these trends. The expanded assessments reported here are based on an extensive disturbance and climate history for each national forest, and two forest carbon models, to estimate the relative impacts of disturbance (e.g., fires, harvests, insect outbreaks, disease) and nondisturbance factors (climate, carbon dioxide concentration, nitrogen deposition). Results are summarized for each region of the National Forest System in the main document. A set of regional appendices to this report provides more detailed information about individual national forests within each region. Results are highly variable across the United States. Generally, carbon stocks are increasing in forests of the eastern United States as these forests continue to recover and grow older after higher historical harvesting rates and periods of nonforest land use. In contrast, carbon stocks in forests of the western United States may be either increasing or decreasing, depending on recent effects of natural disturbances and climate change. The information supports national forest units in assessing carbon stocks, quantifying carbon outcomes of broad forest management strategies and planning, and meeting carbon assessment requirements of the 2012 Planning Rule and directives. Results of these expanded assessments will provide context for project-level decisions, separated from the effects of factors that are beyond land managers’ control.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Birdsey, Richard A.; Dugan, Alexa J.; Healey, Sean P.; Dante-Wood, Karen; Zhang, Fangmin; Mo, Gang; Chen, Jing M.; Hernandez, Alexander J.; Raymond, Crystal L.; McCarter, James. 2019. Assessment of the influence of disturbance, management activities, and environmental factors on carbon stocks of U.S. national forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-402. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 116 pages plus appendices.


    forest carbon stock, national forest, land management, natural disturbance, climate change

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page