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First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: Implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources.Author(s): J. P. DiGangi; E. S. Boyle; T. Karl; P. Harley; A. Turnipseed
Source: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18729-18766.
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
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DescriptionWe report the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) flux measured via eddy covariance, as well as HCHO concentrations and gradients, as observed by the Madison Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument during the BEACHON-ROCS 2010 campaign in a rural, Ponderosa Pine forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO. A median noon upward flux of ~80 μg m-2 h-1 (~24 pptv m s-1) was observed with a noon range of 37 to 131 μg m-2 h-1. Enclosure experiments were performed to determine the HCHO branch (3.5 μg m-2 h-1) and soil (7.3 μg m-2 h-1) direct emission rates in the canopy. A zero-dimensional canopy box model, used to determine the apportionment of HCHO source and sink contributions to the flux, underpredicted the observed HCHO flux by a factor of 6. Simulated increases in concentrations of species similar to monoterpenes resulted in poor agreement with measurements, while simulated increases in direct HCHO emissions and/or concentrations of species similar to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol best improved model/measurement agreement. Given the typical diurnal variability of these BVOC emissions and direct HCHO emissions, this suggests that the source of the missing flux is a process with both a strong temperature and radiation dependence.
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CitationDiGangi, J. P.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Kim, S.; Cantrell, C.; Maudlin Iii, R. L.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. 2011. First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: Implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18729-18766.
Keywordsformaldehyde flux, eddy covariance, emission rates, ponderosa pine, canopy
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