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    Author(s): Thomas W. Hoekstra; Timothy F. H. Allen; Curtis H. Flather
    Date: 1991
    Source: BioScience. 41(3): 148-154.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1013.0 KB)


    Ecology focuses on tangible organisms; ecological complexity results from the myriad of patterns with which the many different types of organisms interact in their environments. Yet ecology is by no means devoid of abstraction. To produce general principles out of the mass of complicated natural histories, ecology is replete with concepts, such as competition, evolution, and succession, and abstruse structures, such as communities and ecosystems.

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    Hoekstra, Thomas W.; Allen, Timothy F. H.; Flather, Curtis H. 1991. Implicit scaling in ecological research: On when to make studies of mice and men. BioScience. 41(3): 148-154.


    ecology, ecosystems, communities, organism/concept relationships

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