Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Suzanne Boyden; Dan Binkley; Wayne Shepperd
    Date: 2005
    Source: Forest Ecology and Management. 219(1): 43-55.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (429.0 KB)


    Effective management and restoration of ponderosa pine forests requires an understanding of the heterogeneity of contemporary and historical stand structures. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of tree establishment, mortality and size structure over a 30-year period in an old-growth ponderosa pine stand in the mid-montane zone of the Colorado Front Range. We analyzed spatial patterns and spatial associations using Ripley's K(t) and K12(t) and then modeled the patterns using point process models. Forest age structure was estimated by aging a sub-sample of trees in the stand. Climate appeared to play a significant role in the coarse-scale temporal pattern of regeneration events. Stand structure (distribution of patches, light availability, and seed trees) influenced the spatial and temporal pattern of more recent regeneration events. Patchy regeneration resulted in spatial independence and some segregation of size classes. Older trees in the stand (40-55 cm dbh) exhibited some regularity in their spatial distribution at short distances indicating that patterns of mortality had been historically patchy. Contemporary patterns of mortality were mostly patchy, and mountain pine beetles caused a significant amount of mortality in the 1970s and 1980s. Both establishment and mortality retained spatial patterns that were somewhat consistent with pre-settlement forests, despite changes in driving processes.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Boyden, Suzanne; Binkley, Dan; Shepperd, Wayne. 2005. Spatial and temporal patterns in structure, regeneration, and mortality of an old-growth ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Front Range. Forest Ecology and Management. 219(1): 43-55.


    Google Scholar


    disturbance, mortality, ponderosa pine, regeneration, spatial pattern, stand structure

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page