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    This study evaluated the effect of wood extracts from Tectona grandis, Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara, and Pinus roxburghii combined with linseed oil as protectants of two non-durable wood species against the termite, Heterotermes indicola. Heartwood blocks (19 × 19 × 19 mm) and wood shavings were extracted using an ethanol/toluene (2:1) solvent system. Results of choice and no-choice tests with solvent-extracted and non-extracted heartwood blocks showed greater wood mass loss from termite feeding on solvent-extracted blocks compared with non-extracted blocks for all wood species. Significantly higher termite mortality was observed after termite exposure to non-extracted blocks compared with extracted blocks for all durable species. Sapwood blocks of two non-durable wood species (southern pine and cottonwood) were vacuum/pressure impregnated separately with each of the four types of extract at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml−1, linseed oil (20%) and a mixture of oil (20%) and extracts (4.25 mg ml−1) for the laboratory and field tests. Results showed that extract-oil mixture imparted significantly higher termite resistance compared with linseed or extracts alone under laboratory conditions. This apparent synergistic effect was clearly noted when linseed oil was combined with extracts from T. grandis or D. sissoo followed by an extract-oil mixture using C. deodara. These extract oil mixtures showed significantly less weight loss for the treated non-durable wood species and higher termite mortality (83– 100%) compared with the control treatments and other extract-linseed oil mixtures tested. Treatment of both non-durable wood species with T. grandis + oil and D. sissoo + oil prevented termite damage compared with other treatments when blocks and stakes were exposed in the field for a period of 2 years. Results of the current study indicated that a mixture of a particular heartwood extract with linseed oil has potential to be used as environmentally friendly wood protectants.

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    Hassan, Babar; Ahmed, Sohail; Kirker, Grant; Mankowski, Mark E.; Misbah ul Haq, Muhammad. 2020. Synergistic effect of heartwood extracts in combination with linseed oil as wood preservatives against subterranean termite Heterotermes indicola (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae). Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 27(3): 3076-3085.


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    Termite, wood protection, natural products, synergism, environmentally friendly, oil, field tests

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