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Comparative Study of Direct Compounding, Coupling Agent-Aided and Initiator-Aided Reactive Extrusion to Prepare Cellulose Nanocrystal/PHBV (CNC/PHBV) NanocompositeAuthor(s): Ting Zheng; Craig M. Clemons; Srikanth Pilla
Source: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Forest Products Laboratory
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DescriptionThree compounding methods were compared to determine their effects on the organization of the interphase in nanocomposites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) processed via (1) direct compounding, (2) reactive extrusion using a coupling agent (PHBV-g-GMA), or (3) reactive extrusion using a peroxide free-radical initiator (dicumyl peroxide, DCP). Tensile testing showed that only the peroxide-aided extrusion resulted in improvement in strength by 13%. Analyzing the interphases via DSC, WAXRD, SAXS, ATR-FTIR, and XPS helped relate the compounding methods to mechanical performance. Distinct PHBV−CNC graft configurations were found by analyzing CNCs isolated from each of the three composite types. Use of DCP led to polymer grafting, incomplete coverage of PHBV on the CNC surface, and many interpolymer cross-links. The result was robust matrix−CNC interfacial interaction and alignment of the CNCs, which yielded the best mechanical properties. Conversely, adding a coupling agent led to less actual PHBV grafts but greater coverage of the CNC surface relative to DCP-induced grafting. Although the CNCs were more dispersed, the lower PHBV grafting limited interfacial stress transfer and, consequently, reinforcement. While the direct compounding led to the less-dispersed CNC particles in the matrix with higher polymer coverage of flexible polymeric chain.
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CitationZheng, Ting; Clemons, Craig M.; Pilla, Srikanth. 2020. Comparative study of direct compounding, coupling agent-aided and initiator-aided reactive extrusion to prepare cellulose nanocrystal/PHBV (CNC/PHBV) nanocomposite. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 8(2): 814-822. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b04867.
KeywordsCNC, PHBV, nanocomposite, reactive extrusion, interface
- PHBV-graft-GMA via reactive extrusion and its use in PHBV/nanocellulose crystal composites
- Interfacial improvements in biocomposites based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastics reinforced and grafted with α-cellulose fibers
- Grafting of Bacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) onto Cellulose via In Situ Reactive Extrusion with Dicumyl Peroxide
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