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    Author(s): Xi Wu; Christopher Adam SenalikJames WackerXiping Wang; Guanghui Li
    Date: 2020
    Source: Forests. 11(2): 230
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (1000.0 KB)


    An object detection method of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and dynamic time warping (DTW) is proposed in this study. Two groups of timber specimens were examined. The first group comprised of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) timber sections prepared in the laboratory with inserts of known internal characteristics. The second group comprised of timber girders salvaged from the timber bridges on historic Route 66 over 80 years. A GSSI Subsurface Interface Radar (SIR) System 4000 with a 2 GHz palm antenna was used to scan these two groups of specimens. GPR sensed differences in dielectric constants (DC) along the scan path caused by the presence of water, metal, or air within the wood. This study focuses on the feature identification and defect classification. The results show that the processing methods were efficient for the illustration of GPR information.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Wu, Xi; Senalik, Christopher Adam; Wacker, James; Wang, Xiping; Li, Guanghui. 2020. Object detection of ground-penetrating radar signals using empirical mode decomposition and dynamic time warping. Forests. 11(2): 230.


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    Ground-penetrating radar, timber, metal, moisture content, signal processing

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