Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Jeff S. Giltzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade
    Date: 1996
    Source: Proceedings First Longleaf Alliance Conference
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (268.0 KB)


    Longleaf pine groundcover vegetation is uniquely species rich at small to medium spatial scales. However, species richness has been reduced in many locations by a history of fire suppression and soil disturbance. It is therefore of interest to determine whether groundcover species can be successfully introduced into appropriate habitats without intensive site preparation which might further damage those habitats. We have been testing two methods for introducing species into longleaf pine groundcover vegetation in the Francis Marion National Forest: (1) as seeds, collected by machine from several sites inside and outside of the National Forest. (2) as nursery grown seedlings. The only site preparation is fire. Results indicate that wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana) is readily introduced from seed (i.e., seedlings are present and increasing in size 2 years after the initial introductions), particular1y in high light microhabitats without excessive woody competition. However, seed introductions are rarely successful for other species. In contrast to the seed introduction treatments, we have had good success introducing 1-2 year old seedlings. In addition to nursery grown seedlings of wiregrass, we have also outplanted toothache grass (Ctenium aromaticum), lndiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) and the rare forb Pamassia caroliniana. In all cases, seedlings have shown good survival (generally > 80%). Pamassia seedlings have demonstrated the capacity to withstand periods of flooding lasting > 7 days and are Increasing rapidly in size (i.e., measured as clump basal area). We conclude (1) that seedling introductions may be a useful method for enhancing species richness of longleaf pine groundcover, and (2) sites managed with frequent fire and minimal soil disturbance may serve as refugia for artificially established populations of rare groundcover plants.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Giltzenstein, Jeff S.; Streng, Donna R.; Wade, Dale D. 1996. Species introductions in longleaf pine groundcover vegetation. In: Proceedings First Longleaf Alliance Conference; 1996 Sept. 17-19; Mobile, AL: 79-81.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page